séparation de l'irlandedécembre 23, 2020 7:39 Commentaires fermés sur séparation de l'irlande
At the time of that act, both Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland were to remain parts of the United Kingdom. Les contrôles et prélèvements des droits de douane nécessaires à cet effet auront lieu aux points d’entrée de l’île d’Irlande en Irlande du Nord. Further, the preamble referred to: "...our Divine Lord, Jesus Christ, Who sustained our fathers through centuries of trial, Gratefully remembering their heroic and unremitting struggle to regain the rightful independence of our Nation,"; this was an independence that unionists had opposed, and seemed to imply in an insulting fashion that Jesus had sustained only the Irish independence movement, and never the unionist cause. I understand there is considerable doubt in the minds of lawyers and others as to whether these Parliamentary counties carry with them the ordinary territorial waters, extending three miles out from the shore. Oral Answers. He summarised the position as currently being that: The matter, therefore, now stands as follows. The impact was further reduced when both countries joined the European Communities in 1973. A corresponding statement was made by Conor Lenihan, then an Irish Government Minister: [t]here has never been any formal agreement between Ireland and the United Kingdom on the delimitation of a territorial water boundary between the two states. They did not wish to say that Ulster should have no opportunity of looking at entire Constitution of the Free State after it had been drawn up before she must decide whether she would or would not contract out. We are glad to think that our decision will obviate the necessity of mutilating the Union Jack. I have received the Address presented to me by both Houses of the Parliament of Northern Ireland in pursuance of Article 12 of the Articles of Agreement set forth in the Schedule to the Irish Free State (Agreement) Act, 1922, and of Section 5 of the Irish Free State Constitution Act, 1922, and I have caused my Ministers and the Irish Free State Government to be so informed. Le drapeau voyagea à travers l’Irlande avec cette personne, et fut présenté officiellement aux citoyens irlandais, à son retour à Dublin, le 15 avril 1848. 68, Northern Ireland Parliamentary Debates, 27 October 1922, MFPP Working Paper No. Book digitized by Google and uploaded to the Internet Archive by user tpb. To allow us to provide a better and more tailored experience please click "OK", A group of 'Black and Tans' and Auxiliaries in Dublin, April 1921 | © National Library of Ireland/WikiCommons, The nomination of John Edward Redmond, nationalist MP, at Waterford Court House, 1910, © National Library of Ireland/WikiCommons, Members of the Ulster Volunteer Force in Belfast, 1914, A group of 'Black and Tans' and Auxiliaries in Dublin, April 1921. The new republic could not, and in any event did not wish to, remain in the Commonwealth; and it chose not to join NATO when that was founded in 1949.  The unionist MP Horace Plunkett, who would later support home rule, opposed it in the 1890s because of the danger of partition. This proposed suspending Marshall Plan Foreign Aid to the UK, as Northern Ireland was costing Britain $150,000,000 annually, and therefore American financial support for Britain was prolonging the partition of Ireland. C’était le symbole de la réunification entre les protestants et les catholiques, qui guerroyaient depuis des siècles. With attempts at this legislation having begun in 1886, the Government of Ireland Act of 1920 was the fourth try at establishing Home Rule in Ireland – that is, affording the country a certain amount of freedom to self-govern while retaining its position as part of the United Kingdom. 4.9 / 5 ( 49 votes ) Avec la séparation de l’Irlande du Nord du reste de l’Irlande, la population irlandaise assiste pendant de longues années à de violentes confrontations entre les pro-catholiques et l’armée britannique. , Michael Collins had negotiated the treaty and had it approved by the cabinet, the Dáil (on 7 January 1922 by 64–57), and by the people in national elections. 7 décembre Suppression du 5eme amendement de la constitution sur la position spéciale de l’Église catholique par référendum. Les recommandations ont ici visé principalement l'augmenta-  The Irish cabinet concluded that such a withdrawal would lead to widescale civil war and a greater loss of life, which the Irish Army of 12,500 men could do little to prevent. The following is para 23 of the Working Party's report (which speaks for itself):. The disorder [in Northern Ireland] is extreme. Même si vous êtes déjà gavés de cookies, les nôtres vous apporteront une expérience encore plus appétissante.  In early 1922 the IRA launched a failed offensive into border areas of Northern Ireland. The two governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding pertaining to the promotion of offshore renewable energy development in the seas adjacent to the Lough Foyle (and Carlingford Lough) in 2011. Following partition some social and sporting bodies divided but others did not. Since partition, a key aspiration of Irish nationalists has been to bring about a reunited Ireland, with the whole island forming one independent state. -8 000 Peuplement mésolithique de l’Irlande. We decline, that is to say, either (1) to give any undertaking that we will submit the international dispute as to our jurisdiction in the Lough Foyle area to a British Commonwealth Tribunal or (2) to make any agreement with regard to the fishery dispute itself which would prejudice the issue in that dispute or which would purport to remove the legal right of any citizen of Saorstát Éireann to test the claim of the Irish Society or their lessees in the courts of this country. None achieved an electoral majority and they were prone to divisions. The boundary in Lough Foyle and the River Foyle and in Carlingford Lough is open to dispute. The potential division of the country into six Northern Irish counties and twenty-six Southern Irish counties was included in the Fourth Irish Home Rule Bill of 1920 in order to try to reconcile the conflicting wishes of Irish nationalists and unionists, which had caused the earlier three bills to fail and led to the Home Rule Crisis. In mid-November 1941, legal opinions of solicitors to The Honourable The Irish Society were presented to the Royal Navy. One of the issues is that the median channel in Carlingford is the navigation channel whereas... the navigation channel in Lough Foyle hugs the southern side, which makes it rather more difficult to manage or to negotiate an agreement as to where the territorial waters actually lie.  In its white paper on Brexit, the United Kingdom government reiterated its commitment to the Belfast Agreement. Et il ajoutait : "Dût-on, après la séparation, aboutir à la fédération". L'Irlande: Son Origine Son Histoire Et Sa Situation Presente (1867) | H. De Chavannes De La Giraudiere, Jean Louis Alphonse Huillard Breholles | ISBN: 9781120584830 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. 316 UCDA P4/424", "Dáil Éireann – Volume 63 – 12 August, 1936 Ceisteanna—Questions. I should have thought, however strongly one may have embraced the cause of Ulster, that one would have resented it as an intolerable grievance if, before finally and irrevocably withdrawing from the Constitution, she was unable to see the Constitution from which she was withdrawing. En 1922, après la guerre d’indépendance irlandaise, les 26 comtés du sud de l’Irlande se détachent du Royaume-Uni pour devenir l’État Libre d’Irlande sous la forme de dominion, puis l'Irlande après 1948. Un siècle après la séparation de 1921, le Brexit fait renaître le spectre des violences et rouvre l’horizon d’une réunification des deux Irlandes. Once the treaty was ratified, the Houses of Parliament of Northern Ireland had one month (dubbed the Ulster month) to exercise this opt-out during which time the provisions of the Government of Ireland Act continued to apply in Northern Ireland. With Northern and Southern Ireland now separated into two jurisdictions by an almost 500-kilometre border, the ratification of the treaty led to a renewed period of civil war and years of hostility and violence between unionists and nationalists in Northern Ireland, known as The Troubles. The partition of Ireland (Irish: críochdheighilt na hÉireann) was the process by which the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland divided Ireland into two self-governing polities: Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland. The Government of Ireland Act was enacted in 1920, and the island was partitioned into Southern and Northern Ireland the following year, but Home Rule never came into effect in the South. L'Irlanda è stata controllata nell'ambito dello studio preliminare e quindi prima della finalizzazione del modello di controllo. Perhaps because of this, the Act did not explicitly address the position of territorial waters, although section 11(4) provided that neither Southern Ireland nor Northern Ireland would have any competence to make laws in respect of "lighthouses, buoys, or beacons (except so far as they can consistently with any general Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom be constructed or maintained by a local harbour authority)".  The pro-treaty side argued that the proposed Boundary Commission would satisfy the greatest number on each side of the eventual border, and felt that the Council of Ireland (as envisaged by the 1920 Home Rule Act) would lead to unity by consent over a longer period. This collapsed in May 1974 due to the Ulster Workers' Council strike, and the new British Prime Minister Harold Wilson considered a rapid withdrawal of the British Army and administration from Northern Ireland in 1974–75 as a serious policy option.  Support for Irish republicanism had risen during 1917, with Sinn Féin winning four by-elections that year. Dans les pays avancés, le capital a débordé le cadre des Etats nationaux et substitué le monopole à la concurrence, en créant toutes les prémisses objectives pour la réalisation du socialisme. They were keen to put it beyond doubt that the territorial waters around Northern Ireland would not belong to the Irish Free State. So far as naval use is concerned we appear to have [a] good case. The partition of Ireland (Irish: críochdheighilt na hÉireann) was the process by which the Government of the (then) United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland divided the island of Ireland into two separate polities. Article 2 of the Eire Constitution of 1937 provided that the national territory included the whole of the territorial seas of Ireland, and Eire spokesmen have repeatedly laid claim to the territorial waters round Northern Ireland. A good summary of the Irish position on the territorial waters issue was given by then Taoiseach, Mr. Jack Lynch: ...[W]e claim that the territorial waters around the whole island of Ireland are ours and our claim to the territorial waters around Northern Ireland is based on the Government of Ireland Act of 1920. La partition de l'Irlande (en anglais : partition of Ireland - en irlandais : críochdheighilt na hÉireann) est la division de l'île d'Irlande en deux territoires distincts : l'Irlande du Nord et l'État d'Irlande indépendant. There are no negotiations currently in progress on this issue.  In 1925, the Chief Justice of the Irish Free State, Hugh Kennedy, advised the President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State, W. T. Cosgrave, as follows: In 1927, illegal (as viewed by the Northern administration) fishing on Lough Foyle had become so grave that Northern Ireland Prime Minister, James Craig entered into correspondence with his Free State counterpart, W. T. Cosgrave. A particular dispute arose between the Government of the Irish Free State of the one part and the Northern Ireland and UK Governments of the other part over territorial waters in Lough Foyle. Today in Ireland many sports, such as boxing, Gaelic football, hurling, cricket and rugby union, are organised on an all-island basis, with a single team representing Ireland in international competitions. Publication date 1867 Publisher A. Mame Collection americana Digitizing sponsor Google Book from the collections of unknown library Language French. , With the fall of France in 1940, the British Admiralty ordered convoys to be re-routed through the north-western approaches which would take them around the north coast and through the North Channel to the Irish Sea. pg. The Anglo-Irish Treaty contained a provision that would establish a boundary commission, which could adjust the border as drawn up in 1920. Regardless of this, it was unacceptable to Éamon de Valera, who led the Irish Civil War to stop it. These were followed by the Northern Council for Unity, the Irish Anti-Partition League, the All Ireland Anti-Partition League and finally National Unity (Ireland) in 1964. At the Olympics, a person from Northern Ireland can choose to represent either the Republic of Ireland team (which competes as "Ireland") or United Kingdom team (which competes as "Great Britain"). The proposals were first published in 1970 in a biography of de Valera.. In April 1923, just four months after independence, the Irish Free State established customs barriers on the border. The main dispute centred on the proposed status as a dominion (as represented by the Oath of Allegiance and Fidelity) for Southern Ireland, rather than as an independent all-Ireland republic, but continuing partition was a significant matter for Ulstermen like Sean MacEntee, who spoke strongly against partition or re-partition of any kind. The treaty, and the laws which implemented it, allowed Northern Ireland to opt out of the Irish Free State. The Good Friday Agreement in 1998, was ratified by two referendums in both parts of Ireland, including an acceptance by the Republic that its claim to Northern Ireland would only be achieved by peaceful means. The Royal Navy increased its use of Lough Foyle in the early months of 1941. De Valera's minority refused to be bound by the result. The unionists adopted the positions they had demonstrated in 1886 and 1893. The railway network on either side of the border relied on cross-border routes, and eventually a large section of the Irish railway route network was shut down. The Times, Court Circular, Buckingham Palace, 6 December 1922. De Valera's policy in the ensuing negotiations was that the future of Ulster was an Irish-British matter to be resolved between two sovereign states, and that Craig should not attend. Depuis 1937, l'Irlande indépendante porte officiellement le simple nom d'« Irlande » (en irlandais : Éire) [Note 4], .Cependant, pour faire la différence avec l'île d'Irlande, on l'appelle souvent « république d'Irlande » (en irlandais : Poblacht na hÉireann.Si ce n'est pas son nom officiel, le Republic of Ireland Act de 1949 en fait sa « description officielle » . L'impérialisme est le stade suprême de développement du capitalisme. The report was, however, rejected by the Ulster unionist members, and Sinn Féin had not taken part in the proceedings, meaning the Convention was a failure. King George V was forced to hold the Buckingham Palace Conference on Ireland, bringing representatives of both groups together to discuss potential solutions. Not only is this opposed to your pledge in our agreed statement of November 25th, but it is also antagonistic to the general principles of the Empire regarding her people's liberties. Cette base de données est un index de fragments du recensement religieux de l’Irlande en 1776. Following the Paris Peace Conference, in September 1919 David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, tasked the Long Committee with implementing Britain's commitment to introduce Home Rule, which was based on the policy of Walter Long, and some findings of the Irish Convention. The vote was lost by 206 votes to 139, with 83 abstaining. inféneur ou égal à I pour une grande partie des vaches allait dans le même sens que les analyses urrnaires. Boundary of Northern Ireland – The Government of Northern Ireland ask that the question of their territorial jurisdiction should be put beyond doubt. L'Irlande a fait l'objet d'une visite dans le cadre de l'étude préliminaire, c'est-à-dire avant que le modèle de contrôle ne soit finalisé. On 31 August 1940, Sir John Maffey, the UK's representative to the Irish government, wrote to the Dominions Office in London that:. the territorial waters do go with the counties]". IBIS working paper no. We accordingly recommend that no attempt should be made by the United Kingdom Government, whether by legislation or declaration, to define the boundary of Northern Ireland. In spite of the inducements held out to Ulster, we are convinced that it is not in the best interests of Britain or the Empire that Ulster should become subordinate to the Sinn Fein. - L'Irlande remporte l'Eurovision, représentée par Johnny Logan "What's another year" - La France, représentée par le groupe Profil "Hé, hé, m'sieurs, dames" finit à la 11ème place - Sophie et Magaly représentent le Luxembourg avec "Le Papa Pingouin", obtenant la 9ème place . Instead, the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which ended the war in Ireland, allowed the self-governing Irish Free State to be created. The territory that became Northern Ireland had a Protestant and Unionist majority who wanted to maintain ties to Britain. Things did not remain static during that gap. Unionist and nationalist politicians met in a common forum for the last time before partition. Discussion in the Parliament of the address was short. , We most earnestly desire to help in bringing about a lasting peace between the peoples of these two islands, but see no avenue by which it can be reached if you deny Ireland's essential unity and set aside the principle of national self-determination.. The treaty as ratified in December 1921 and January 1922 allowed for a re-drawing of the mutual border by a Boundary Commission. I need not remind your Lordships that the area in doubt, although according to His Majesty's Government it is small, is, in the opinion of the leaders of the Free State, a very large area. A court case in the Free State in 1923 relating to fishing rights in Lough Foyle held that the Free State's territorial waters ran right up to the shore of County Londonderry. From this point on all the political parties in the Republic were formally in favour of ending partition, regardless of the opinion of the electorate in Northern Ireland. We do not believe that this claim could be sustained, and to raise the boundary issue would jeopardise the access to Londonderry, since the navigable channel in Lough Foyle hugs the Donegal shore. As a result of this, in April 1921 the island was partitioned into Southern and Northern Ireland.  As a result, the Commission's report was not published; the detailed article explains the factors involved. The Irish Society's view was that the whole of Lough Foyle was part of County Londonderry and accordingly the border could not be that of the median line of Lough Foyle. 'The Irish Border: History, Politics, Culture' Malcolm Anderson, Eberhard Bort (Eds.) He noted that he had received from Arthur Griffith the following letter dated 20 March 1922:. He further explained that the members of the Parliament of Southern Ireland had agreed to put that interpretation upon it. – Lough Foyle Fishery Rights", "Dáil Éireann – Volume 408 – 09 May, 1991 Adjournment Debate. 2 (1922), pages 1147–1150", "Announcement of agreement, Hansard 3 Dec 1925", "Dáil vote to approve the Boundary Commission negotiations", "Hansard – Commons Debate on Irish Free State (Consequential Provisions) Bill, 27 November 1922", "Documents in Irish Foreign Policy Website – Letter Ref. It took place on 3 May 1921 under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. It was intended that each jurisdiction would be granted home rule but remain within the United Kingdom. After the Third Home Rule Bill was passed in 1912, Ulster unionists had founded a paramilitary force, named the Ulster Volunteer Force, with the intention of resisting the bill’s implementation by violent means. The rest of Ireland had a Catholic and Irish nationalist majority who wanted independence. The original intention was for both regions to remain within the United Kingdom, but the Irish War of Independence led to the south seceding from the UK in 1922, while Northern Ireland opted to remain. It is, I think, common case between us that in English law the counties do not include adjacent territorial waters and, therefore, according to our claim these territorial waters were retained by the Irish Free State. The passage of time was ensuring that the Border was acquiring inertia. Neither explanation nor justification for this astounding change has been attempted. No division or vote was requested on the address, which was described as the Constitution Act and was then approved by the Senate of Northern Ireland. Plus l'indice est faible et plus le pays est pacifique. Servis avec amour ! Today only the cross-border route from Dublin to Belfast remains, and counties Cavan, Donegal, Fermanagh, Monaghan and Tyrone have no rail services. Its articles 2 and 3 defined the 'national territory' as: "the whole island of Ireland, its islands and the territorial seas". This was presented to the king the following day on 8 December 1922, and then entered into effect, in accordance with the provisions of Section 12 of the Irish Free State (Agreement) Act 1922. L’équation semblait résolue avec un accord signé 2019, mettant en place, pour éviter une frontière solide entre l’Irlande et l’Irlande du Nord, un backstop ( "filet de sécurité" institutionnel ), couloir maritime entre la Grande-Bretagne et l’Irlande. Under the treaty, the Government of Ireland Act continued to apply in Northern Ireland for one month after the coming into being of the Free State, and Northern Ireland would continue to remain outside the Free State if the Parliament of Northern Ireland stated its desire to do so in an address to King George V within that month. The Government of Northern Ireland claim that the County of Londonderry includes the whole of Lough Foyle, which lies between the Counties of Londonderry and Donegal, and the whole of the River Foyle in that stretch of it which separates the Counties of Tyrone and Donegal. Collins was primarily responsible for drafting the constitution of the new Irish Free State, based on a commitment to democracy and rule by the majority.. Following the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the territory of Southern Ireland left the UK and became the Irish Free State, now the Republic of Ireland. If the Houses of Parliament of Northern Ireland had not made such a declaration, under Article 14 of the Treaty, Northern Ireland, its Parliament and government would have continued in being but the Oireachtas would have had jurisdiction to legislate for Northern Ireland in matters not delegated to Northern Ireland under the Government of Ireland Act. Le 6 décembre 1922, l'Irlande du Nord est devenue une région du nouvel état irlandais, l'état libre d'Irlande (Irish Free State). As part of the treaty, Northern Ireland was entitled to opt out of the new Irish Free State, which it did. The Taoiseach Seán Lemass visited Northern Ireland in secrecy in 1966, leading to a return visit to Dublin by Terence O'Neill; it had taken four decades to achieve such a simple meeting. Comme elles couvrent toute l’Irlande, elles sont très importantes en termes, non seulement du développement de l’image d’une lignée particulière mais de celui des vastes conditions sociales du pays. Buy L'Irlande: Son Origine Son Histoire Et Sa Situation Presente (1867) by De La Giraudiere, H De Chavannes from Amazon's Fiction Books Store. L‘Irlande éprouve une préoccupation particulière pour son milieu marin, d‘autant plus qu‘une proportion importante de son économie de trouve Rail transport in Ireland was seriously affected by partition. C’est le serpent de mer des négociations sur le Brexit : la définition du statut de la frontière irlandaise. In 2009, the territorial dispute concerning Lough Foyle was raised in a meeting of the Northern Ireland Assembly's Committee for Enterprise Trade and Investment. After the onset of the Troubles (1969–98), a 1973 referendum showed that a majority of the electorate in Northern Ireland did want to continue the link to Britain as expected, but the referendum was boycotted by Nationalist voters. In May 1949 the Taoiseach John A. Costello introduced a motion in the Dáil strongly against the terms of the UK's Ireland Act 1949 that confirmed partition for as long as a majority of the electorate in Northern Ireland wanted it, styled in Dublin as the "Unionist Veto". On their rejection, neither the London or Dublin governments publicised the matter. , When, in 1910, the Irish Party again held the balance of power in the Commons, H. H. Asquith introduced a Third Home Rule Bill in 1912. C'est du point de vue de la lutte révolutionnaire des ouvriers anglais que Marx réclamait, en 1869, la séparation de l'Irlande d'avec l'Angleterre. English Conservative politician Lord Randolph Churchill proclaimed: "the Orange card is the one to play", which was later expressed in the popular slogan, "Home Rule means Rome Rule". Le 3 mai 1921, il s'agissait de l'une des deux nouvelles régions britanniques - l'Irlande du Nord et l'Irlande du Sud (en anglais, Southern Ireland).  It was certain that Northern Ireland would exercise its opt out. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "betreffend Ehescheidung" – Französisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Französisch-Übersetzungen. Cette réglementation prévoit que l’Irlande du Nord continue de faire partie du territoire douanier britannique, même si toutes les règles pertinentes du marché intérieur de l’UE ainsi que le code des douanes de l’UE s’appliquent. In September 1940 Maffey approached the Irish External Affairs Secretary, Joseph Walshe, to inform him ‘of the intended increase of light naval craft’ in Lough Foyle. There was one obvious location: Lough Foyle. An "Addendum North East Ulster" indicates his acceptance of the 1920 partition for the time being, and of the rest of Treaty text as signed in regard to Northern Ireland: That whilst refusing to admit the right of any part of Ireland to be excluded from the supreme authority of the Parliament of Ireland, or that the relations between the Parliament of Ireland and any subordinate legislature in Ireland can be a matter for treaty with a Government outside Ireland, nevertheless, in sincere regard for internal peace, and in order to make manifest our desire not to bring force or coercion to bear upon any substantial part of the province of Ulster, whose inhabitants may now be unwilling to accept the national authority, we are prepared to grant to that portion of Ulster which is defined as Northern Ireland in the British Government of Ireland Act of 1920, privileges and safeguards not less substantial than those provided for in the 'Articles of Agreement for a Treaty' between Great Britain and Ireland signed in London on 6 December 1921.. Under the former Act, at 1pm on 6 December 1922, King George V (at a meeting of his Privy Council at Buckingham Palace) signed a proclamation establishing the new Irish Free State.. They justified this view on the basis that if Northern Ireland could exercise its option to opt out at an earlier date, this would help to settle any state of anxiety or trouble on the new Irish border. The Commission activities proved abortive. The British Government, committed to implementing Home Rule, set up a cabinet committee under the chairmanship of southern unionist Walter Long. La constitution de 1937 revendique comme territoire de l'Irlande l'ensemble de l'île, y compris donc l'Irlande du Nord . Following this rebellion, more attempts were made to reach a compromise, such as the 1917–18 Irish Convention in Dublin, with little success. During 1920–22, in what became Northern Ireland, partition was accompanied by violence "in defence or opposition to the new settlement". King George V received it the following day, The Times reporting:. Eventually, a trial period of partition was also included in the third version of the Irish Home Rule Bill to appease unionists, but when World War I broke out in 1914, the bill was suspended. The official division of the country of Ireland into two separate regions – Northern and Southern Ireland – took place in May 1921, through an act passed by the British Parliament. entre l‘Irlande et le Royaume-Uni. The Ulster unionists preferred to remain within the United Kingdom; the nationalist Home Rule parties and the Southern Unionists argued against partition. There is a similar risk in raising the boundary question in Carlingford Lough, where the navigable channel giving access to Newry is partly on the Northern Ireland side and partly on the Eire side of the Lough. L'Irlande: son origine, son histoire et sa situation présente by H. de Chavannes de la Giraudière, Jean Louis Alphonse Huillard -Bréholles. Brexit : entre les deux Irlandes, la séparation impossible ... et l'Irlande du Nord, province britannique) ne seraient pas séparées par une frontière physique.
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